By the time absinthe production was reaching new heights in the districts of Pontarlier at the turn of the twentieth century, so had the international temperance movement to abolish drunkenness. The movement, starting as far back as the 1820s, was well organized, with medical professionals, political associations and committees throughout England, Scotland, Canada, Africa, India and the United States. In 1854, The Pathology of Drunkenness, by Charles Wilson, M.D. of Edinburgh was submitted to further the movement’s cause, it laid the foundation that drunkenness was a deliberate attempt to commit suicide. Similar reports and recommendations were written to support the claims that alcohol served no purpose for medical use or pleasure, and the only way to stop drunkenness was total abstinence.